Beyond the division of attenders vs. non-attenders
Nobuko Kawashima's research paper is one of the first (and best) critical studies into audience development in policy and practice. In 2000, before audience development has swept the plains of all European cultural policies, Kawashima questioned assumptions, expectations and realities of policy on audience development.
Namely, she claimed that there is an assumption that participation in cultural activities is good for everyone and desired by all, and that cultural participation is only a matter of certain removable barriers. However, as she formulates it: "such an idealistic view of culture is opposed by the sociological view that culture in practice is a means for marking and reproducing social distinction". If you are interested in a historical, political and social context of audience development, this is a must read.